Proentgenofile step 3 means the package plots to own Place 3

Proentgenofile step 3 means the package plots to own Place 3

The average get is actually 1.478 from the plosive status, step one.45 on fricative condition, step 1.707 regarding nose position, and you may step 1.942 on the liquid standing. A minimal part from inside the Table step three summarises the outcome out of model from Put step 3. The newest baseline are brand new fricative position, and now we compared this new plosive against. fricative standards, this new nose versus. fricative conditions, and the water against. fricative standards. Earliest, the essential difference between the fresh plosive and you can fricative conditions wasn’t credible, while the 95% CI associated with coefficient estimate included no [?0.06, 0.09]. 2nd, the fresh new nasal vs. fricative and you can liquids against. fricative contrasting revealed that each of the fresh new coefficient estimates was in fact confident (? = 0.16) (nasal) and (? = 0.3) (liquid) and all of the fresh new 95% CIs did not become no ([0.09, 0.24] (nasal) and you can [0.23, 0.38] (liquid)), and so indicating that nonce terms with nasals and you will liquids was indeed evaluated to-be a great deal more kawaii brands than those that have fricatives.


The present day analysis showed that (1) labial consonants are more likely to feel from the kawaii than just coronal and you can dorsal consonants, (2) high-volume consonants may getting of kawaii than just low-regularity consonants, and you can (3) water /?/ and you will nasal /n/ are more likely to feel from the kawaii than fricative /z/ (and you can plosive /d/). Such overall performance recommend that the spot-of-articulation ability of kawaii was [labial], plus the frequency element of this kawaii is actually [high frequency]. The manner-of-articulation element needs then dialogue. Since consonant exhibiting the greatest mediocre score are drinking water /?/, we are able to think that the style-of-articulation ability of kawaii was [liquid]. However, since Bayesian research presented, nose /n/ is far more likely to be on the kawaii than just fricative /z/. Hence, we are able to conclude that water and you will nasals, all of being [sonorant], are on the kawaii.

General conversation

This study showed that the features of consonants associated with kawaii in Japanese are [labial], [high frequency], and [sonorant]. The motivations for the three features are briefly discussed below. The feature [labial] may be linked to a pouting gesture, that is, a gesture made using both lips can induce Japanese people to feel kawaii (Kumagai, 2020). The feature [labial] may also be linked to the image of babies, in that bilabial consonants are more frequent in the earlier phases of language acquisition (Kumagai and Kawahara, 2020). Thus, it can be said that consonants with feature [labial] can evoke the image of babies, at least in Japanese. The feature [high frequency] may stem from smallness, as the frequency code hypothesis states that high-frequency e-post jordanian kvinnor sounds are associated with smallness (Ohala, 1984, 1994). The feature [sonorant] may be connected to a number of observations on sound symbolic effects in names and shapes. Sonorants are better suited for female names or bulleted shapes (Shinohara and Kawahara, 2013; Asano et al., 2015). To summarise, the factors associated with kawaii may include pouting gesture, babyishness, smallness, femininity, and roundness. It is interesting that some of these factors overlap with the factors noted by Kinsella (1995) for cute characters. She noted that ‘The essential anatomy of a cute cartoon character consists in its being small, soft, infantile, mammalian, round, without bodily appendages (e.g., arms), without bodily orifices (e.g., mouths), non-sexual, mute, insecure, helpless or bewildered’. (p. 226; emphasis mine). Taking the fact into consideration that Kinsella (1995) was published more than 25 years ago, it is inferred that something that evokes kawaii in the minds of Japanese speakers has not changed for at least 25 years.

As noted in the introduction section, it is well known that sound symbolism plays an important role in ; Klink and Wu, 2014). The exploration of what consonants are better suited for kawaii names is an interesting topic. Based on the above discussion, it is inferred that the consonants that induce the feeling of kawaii among Japanese people include /p/, /?/, and /m/, as the first consonant /p/ is specified with [labial] and [high frequency], the second consonant /?/ with [sonorant], and the third consonant /m/ with [labial] and [sonorant]. Based on his kawaii judgment experiment with Japanese speakers, Kumagai (2019) discusses whether /m/, in addition to /p/, is another consonant expressive of kawaii in Japanese, since his study results demonstrated that fewest differences existed regarding average scores between nonce words with /p/ and those with /m/. In Japanese words or character names that seem to be associated with kawaii, we find examples that contain /p/, /?/, or /m/. For example, a mimetic word, or onomatopoeia, purupuru, is used to express something soft or something that trembles like jelly. We also find a cute character name pomupomu purin ‘Pom Pom Purin’, created by Sanrio. Moreover, Kawahara (2019) reported that bilabial consonants and /?/ are often used in girls’ names in a popular Japanese anime PreCure, broadcast since 2004. It is expected that these consonants will prove applicable in naming anime characters or products that are characterised by kawaii.

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